B.Sc. Geology

Last Updated on August 6, 2023 by Vishnu Nambiar

B.Sc. Geology is a 3 years long undergraduate level Bachelor of Science Degree course. This course can be pursued after completing 12th standard (Science stream). In this article, you will be reading correct and useful details about this course. The article covers topics like B.Sc. Geology course details, eligibility criteria, admission process, syllabus, PG courses, career prospects and job profiles.

What is geology? What is it like to be a geologist? What are the main tasks of a geologist? Do you have such questions on your mind? Next section will answer such questions of yours.

Geology: An Introduction

The term ‘Geology’ is actually derived from Greek language. It translates to ‘Study of Earth’. It is basically Earth Science. Do you want a proper definition? Check out the next paragraph-


Geology deals with the study of solid Earth, its rocks, its other solid structures, its minerals, its physical and chemical properties, its water resources and the processes and reactions by which their state and properties change. Thus, it is evident that geology is basically Earth Science.


The science of geology is not just limited to the study of planet Earth. It also covers study of solid surface, structures and properties of celestial bodies (other planets, meteors and satellites). This sub-discipline is called ‘Astrogeology’!


By analyzing and studying solid Earth and other geologic data mentioned above, facts such as history of evolution of the Earth, presence and distribution of natural resources (minerals, petroleum, natural gas, hydrocarbons etc), presence and distribution of ground water, insights into climate change, insights into environmental problems and natural hazards can be obtained.


Thus, it is safe to say that the applications of geology are many! This field offers diverse job profiles and opportunities. Many exciting specializations also do exist in the field of Geology.


Geology is a multidisciplinary field that consists of sub-disciplines and sections such as- mineralogy, petrology, astrogeology, stratigraphy, hrdrogeology, sedimentology, seismology, volcanology, geomorphology, crystallography, gemmology, oceanography, geophysics, geochemistry and economic geology.


Who is a Geologist?

A Geologist is a trained professional who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth. A Geologist’s main tasks include- exploration, research, gathering samples, operating geologic equipment and instruments, field work, data analysis and processing, research and development etc. The work profile of a geologist depends a lot on the specialization that he/she has.


Nature of work

This profession involves lot of outdoor work and activities. Exploration is an integral part of this profession. Geologists often have to visit mines, marine ecosystems, deserts, mountains and river beds to carry out their tasks. If you are willing to travel extensively, this job won’t trouble you at all! Sometimes, the work location and condition will be tough and demanding.


Take a desert for example- Oil and gas exploration in desert area means that the geologist will have to face harsh climate, water shortage and extreme working conditions. Similar is the case of mining based job. In this case, a geologist will have to spend considerable amount of time underneath Earth’s surface, in a mine. He/she may even have to setup a temporary work space there!


Geologists make use of numerous tools and equipment to perform various tasks that they have been asked to perform. Tools and equipment range from traditional mechanical tools to modern day GPS and CAD software!


Magnifying glass, gloves, rubber boots, axes, hammers, compass and mining tools are traditional tools that they usually use. Modern drilling tools, GPS systems, Drones, CAD and Computerized Visualization systems, imaging software, mapping software, Remote sensing and GIS are some of the well known modern equipment that geologists use these days.


Surveying location, mapping, imaging surface, collecting data and samples, data analysis, data processing and report making also are important tasks that a geologist has to do. It is not always necessary that geologists have to perform outdoor tasks only. Many geologists are also involved in research work, in laboratories. They use state of the art tools and equipment to analyze samples collected from field.


Let us check out B.Sc. Geology course details now. The next section covers details like- course duration, eligibility criteria and admission process.


B.Sc. Geology: Course Details

B.Sc. Geology is an undergraduate level Bachelor of Science Degree course. Numerous private and Government institutes across India offer this course. This professional course can be pursued by aspirants to become a qualified Geologist.


Duration: Course is 3 years long. In case of most of the institutes offering this course, the academic program is divided into 6 semesters, with each semester lasting for a period of 6 months.


Eligibility criteria: 10+2 passed with Science stream subjects from a recognized board. Minimum aggregate marks required in main Science subjects (PCM/B) is around 55% marks.


Admission process: Most institutes and Universities follow merit based admission process. Marks scored by applicants in 12th board examination and/or relevant entrance test are taken into consideration. Seats are allotted to deserving candidates on the basis of merit marks obtained by them.



To get a better idea about the course structure and syllabus, I’ve assembled a list of important (core) subjects present in B.Sc. Geology course. Let us check out those important subjects-

  • Earth Science
  • Mineral Science
  • Geochemistry
  • Structural Geology
  • Igneous Petrology
  • Sedimentary Petrology
  • Paleontology
  • Metamorphic Petrology
  • Stratigraphic Principles
  • Indian Stratigraphy
  • Hydrogeology
  • Economic Geology
  • Engineering Geology
  • Remote Sensing and GIS


Note: Only core subjects have been listed above, not all subjects present in B.Sc. Geology course have been mentioned. Core subjects have been mentioned to help readers get better knowledge and idea about the structure of the course.


PG courses and further studies

M.Sc. (Geology, Earth Science or Applied Geology) is the best PG course available in front of Indian graduates. M.Sc. course is 2 years long.


After completing M.Sc. course, one may take up relevant M.Tech., M.Phil. and PhD programs. PG courses can be used to specialize in disciplines within the field of geology. Some such well known specializations include-

  • Petrology
  • Mineralogy
  • Marine Geology
  • Seismology
  • Gemmology
  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry
  • Mining Engineering


Other than geology and its allied courses (civil engineering, environmental engineering, mining engineering etc), B.Sc. Geology graduates are also eligible to pursue non relevant PG courses like MBA and Law (LL.B.).


Career prospects and job opportunities

Diverse job opportunities exist in front of geologists in India. Job profile of a geologist depends upon his/her qualifications and specialization. Government as well as private sector job opportunities exist in front of Indian geology graduates.


Pursuing PG course will be highly beneficial, since it will enhance one’s qualification and help land better jobs! Also, completing Masters Education will help one take up the job post of a lecturer (at College). Studying further advanced courses like M.Phil. and PhD will help one build a career in the R&D sector associated with the field of geology.


Also read:

Best B.Sc. courses

Courses after 12th Science

Courses after 12th Science Biology Group

Archaeology courses in India

Geo-technical engineering course

Mining engineering course


Private companies and Government enterprises involved in activities like mineral exploration, mineral mining, mining, mineral production, mineral extraction, oil and natural gas exploration, oil and natural gas extraction etc are known to hire geology graduates.


Some of the well known Government sector recruiters include-

  • GSI (Geological Survey of India)
  • ONGC
  • SAIL
  • Coal India
  • GMDC (Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation)
  • Government operated Quarries
  • BPCL
  • OIL
  • National Mineral Development Corporation
  • Odisha Mining Corporation
  • Rajasthan State Mines and Minerals
  • Tamil Nadu Minerals Limited
  • DRDO
  • ISRO


Talking about private sector, some of the well known recruiters include-

  • Mining Firms
  • Mineral Processing Firms
  • Mineral Extracting Firms
  • Coal Extraction Firms
  • Private Refineries
  • Exotic Gems Mining Firms


Other than the core geology jobs mentioned above, geologists may also take up a job in allied sectors such as metallurgical engineering, civil engineering and mining engineering.


Common job profiles available in front of Geologists include (depending upon one’s specialization and qualification)-

  • Junior Geologist
  • Assistant Geologist
  • Geologist
  • Hydrogeologist
  • Petrologist
  • Marine Geologist
  • Seismologist
  • Astrogeologist
  • Lecturer/Teacher
  • R&D Professional
  • Mine Supervisor


Geologists may earn around 15-30K Rupees per month (average figure) at start. Starting salary depends on number of factors. Prominent factors include- job location, profile of the employer and job profile. In case of a Government job, the salary will be based on the pay band and scale.

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20 thoughts on “B.Sc. Geology”

  1. Sir,
    I had just passed my 12th career this year with PCM and i would like to join for Bsc Geology.
    I would like to know the opportunities of being a graduate in this one. Also whether i could join defense in this regard? and also the job opportunities in abroad and their pay scale too.

  2. I studied in my 12th MPC . Maths , physics, & chemistry as my main subject , can I be able to join in Bsc geology.

  3. I am a high school student and i had taken physics chemistry maths and biology in my high school,,, and now i want to to bsc taking geology as my main subject,,, am i eligible to take admission in it or not,,, if yes then does every institution provide this condition or some

  4. Hello Sir,
    Could you please provide a list of reputed colleges for bsc in geology?
    I want to take an admission in a college preferably in Mumbai or any other city having a good campus.Thank you.

  5. Sir, I am in 11th grade. State board college. I have opted for PCM. But I have a question. Is there any entrance exam for bsc geology? I want to take admission in Ferguson college, Pune. Any entrance for it?

  6. Im in 11th grade studying in state board junior college I took bipc ( physics, chemistry, biology) would I have an option for getting into into Geology field as it has always been my dream to become a geologist i didn’t choose pcm ( physics chemistry maths) because i wasn’t good at maths. Well I just wanted to be sure if I made a right decision by taking PCB in 11th 12th to become a geologist. Please do reply id really appreciate and thanks for the website that could help me in my confused period 🙂

    • U can apply for bsc geology even u hav taken PCB.Beacuse the complementary subjects are
      Physics,statistics,chemistry,remote sensing.so it depend upon the college u prefer for further study.some colleges select complementary has phy and chemistry while some phy and remote sesnsing


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