Vocational Courses in India after 12th & graduation

Last Updated on July 29, 2023 by Vishnu Nambiar

In this post, I’ve listed down some of the best vocational training programs available in India. Bachelor’s Degree, Diploma, Certification – I’ve included different types of courses in this list. This list will be of help to 12th pass students as well as graduates.

What is a vocational training program? How is it different from regular professional courses. Who should pursue vocational training programs? You will find answers to these questions in the next section –

Vocational Training Programs: An Introduction

In simple terms, a vocational training program is a skill-enhancing training course.   The main aim of such a course is to develop relevant skills in students. What it does is – train students in a particular area/domain/sector/vocation and make them skillful in that area.   Let us consider an example – B.Voc. Software Development. It is a vocational training course. B.Voc. stands for Bachelor of Vocation. This vocational course is related to software and computer science.   So, the vocation in case of this course is – software development. Now the course has been designed in such a way that the students learn relevant skills associated with software development.   As a result, a student who pursues this course becomes skillful in areas such as – coding, programming languages, computer science, IT and other allied areas. He/she can now apply for jobs present within this sector.   In short, vocational training programs will make you industry-ready. Depending upon the vocation that you choose, the course will help you acquire skills that are related to that sector. As a result, you will be able to apply for (and find) good jobs in that sector.   Who is it for, you may ask. Who will benefit from such programs? Anyone who wants to acquire industry-specific skills can go for this course. If you are in dire need of a job, but you don’t possess any useful skills, you may go for one such course and turn your fortunes!   8th pass students, 10th pass students, 12th pass students, graduates – vocational courses are ideal for each and every one of them! There’s a training course made for candidates belonging to each of the segment mentioned above.   How’s it different from regular professional courses, you may ask. Well, regular professional courses are long-term programs. Let us consider an example – B.E. or B.Tech. programs.   These programs are professional courses. B.E. or B.Tech. course is 4 years long. There are no exit options in between. But vocational training programs offer exit options. These programs are quite flexible and efficient. Moreover, they give more importance to practical training, skill development and improving employability of candidates.   Come, let us check out more details about vocational courses in India. In the next section, you will find all the details that you need to know about different types of vocational training programs in India –

Different types of vocational training programs in India

Here are the prominent course formats available in India –

  1. B.Voc.
  2. D.Voc.
  3. Skill Diploma
  4. Certification
  5. M.Voc.

Let us check out each format and find out more details about them. Let us start –

1 B.Voc.

B.Voc. stands for Bachelor of Vocation. It is a Bachelor’s Degree course. The academic program is 3 years long. Each academic year is divided into two semesters. Each semester is six months long.   12th pass students are eligible to pursue B.Voc. course.

2 D.Voc.

D.Voc. stands for Diploma in Vocation. It is a Diploma course. The academic program is 3 years long. Each academic year is divided into two semesters. Each semester is six months long.   10th pass students are eligible to pursue D.Voc. course.

3 Skill Diploma courses

Skill Diploma programs are Diploma certificate courses. Course duration could be anywhere between 1-3 years. Eligibility criteria may vary from one course to another.

4 Certification courses

A certificate is awarded to candidates who manage to complete certification training programs. Course duration could be anywhere between 1-2 years (or even lesser). Eligibility criteria may vary from one course to another (usually 8th or 10th pass).

5 M.Voc.

M.Voc. stands for Master of Vocation. It is a Master’s Degree course. Technically, it is a PG level course. The course duration is 2 years. Students who have completed relevant Bachelor’s Degree course are eligible to pursue this course.

Eligibility Criteria

  • B.Voc. – 12th pass or equivalent qualification
  • D.Voc. – 10th pass
  • M.Voc. – completed graduation or equivalent qualification


  • B.Voc. – 3 years
  • D.Voc. – 3 years
  • M.Voc. – 2 years

Disciplines Covered

Vocational training programs covers different domains and disciplines. Each course caters to the needs of a particular domain or discipline. Below, I’ve mentioned some of the prominent disciplines covered by these training programs –

  • Paramedical Training
  • Renewable Energy
  • Healthcare Management
  • Lab Technology
  • Multimedia and Animation
  • Retail Management
  • Agriculture
  • Fashion Technology
  • Nutrition and Healthcare
  • Acting and Filmmaking
  • Travel and Tourism
  • Plantation Management
  • Food Processing
  • Software Development
  • Financial Services
  • Beauty Therapy
  • Hotel Management and Catering Technology
  • Arts and Craft
  • Printing Technology
  • Textile Technology
  • Data and Web Analytics
  • Visual Media
  • Network and Hardware Technology
  • Automobile Technology
  • Interior Design
  • IT and ITES
  • Journalism and Mass Communication
  • Office Management and Practices
  • Healthcare Services
  • Fisheries and Farm Management
  • Theatre Arts


There are three main types of colleges offering vocational training courses in India –

  1. Government Colleges
  2. Aided Colleges
  3. Private Colleges

Government colleges and funded and managed by the Government. As a result, these colleges charge relatively lower fees. Students studying in these colleges are able to enjoy subsidized tuition fees. Aided colleges receive partial funding from the Government. Private colleges are managed and funded by private organizations, charitable trusts and educational bodies.

You may also check – courses after 12th science

Courses after 12th Commerce

Courses after 12th Arts

Diploma courses after 12th

ITI courses

Polytechnic courses

Admission Process

Admission Process may vary from one institute to another. Some institutes are known to conduct merit based admission process. Some other institutes are known to conduct direct admission process.

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